Oxiracetam powder is a nootropic that is a member of the popular racetam family. It is considered more potent than the nootropic piracetam, but only slightly so. It is highly to moderately bioavailable (the gastrointestinal tract absorbs it well) and is safe over long periods of consumption, according to numerous animal studies.
Molecular Weight: 158.16 g/mol
CAS Number: 62613-82-5
ATC Code: N06BX07
Oxiracetam, a nootropic drug labeled to be more active than piracetam in improving memory and learning was initially developed by an Italian drug company. It was later introduced in the Italian market in 1988 and was further distributed on European markets throughout the subsequent years. Oxiracetam also reached the Japanese market after it was licensed by Ciba-Geigy. Although its distribution has increased, the US FDA has not yet approved the use of this drug supplement.
This nootropic agent is unlike other racetams as it is not as widely prescribed by healthcare practitioners in treating mental disorders. Nevertheless, early animal trials showed that it has potential effects for improving cognitive decline and brain health. Even human studies conducted for evaluating oxiracetam use revealed that it may help treat organic solvent abuse, Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia. As such, public concern on nootropic agents like oxiracetam has grown significantly because of an increase in interest towards improving brain function amongst the elderlies as well as young individuals who seek medical aids in improving academic performance.
Oxiracetam (ISF 2522) is a nootropic drug of the racetam family and very mild stimulant. Several studies suggest that the substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time. However, the mechanism of action of the racetam drug family is still a matter of research. Oxiracetam is not approved by Food and Drug Administration for any medical use in the United States.
Oxiracetam is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with a bioavailability of 56-82%. Peak serum levels are reached within one to three hours after a single 800 mg or 2000 mg oral dose, with the maximal serum concentration reaching between 19-31 µg/ml at these doses. Oxiracetam is mainly cleared renally and thus 84% is excreted unchanged in the urine. The half-life of oxiracetam in healthy individuals is about 8 hours, whereas it is 10–68 hours in patients with renal impairment. There is some penetration of the blood–brain barrier with brain concentrations reaching 5.3% of that in the blood (measured one hour after a single 2000 mg intravenous dose). Clearance rates range from 9 to 95 ml/min and steady-state concentrations when 800 mg is given twice daily range from 60 µM to 530 µM. The highest concentrations of oxiracetam is found in the septum pellucidum, followed by the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex and with the lowest concentrations in the striatum after a 200 mg/kg oral dose given to rats.
Pharmacologically, as with Piracetem, Oxiracetam is also known to facilitate in the enhancement of memory and in particular, reduce the cognitive deficits associated with dementia. Oxiracetam has an added benefit of increasing relaxation and reducing depression and anxiety in some users.
When defined in a loose manner, this nootropic is also considered as a psychotropic agent which include: antidepressive, hallucinogenic, tranquilizing, anti-psychotic, and anti-anxiety effects.
Even though the mechanism of action of Oxiracetam is not fully understood yet, what we do know is that it acts as a ‘positive allosteric modulator’. Positive allosteric modulators indirectly contribute to overall receptor activity in the brain.
Oxiracetam is used primarily as a memory and cognition enhancer and as a study aid. Individuals who use it report memory improvement, enhanced memory capacity, increased concentration and improved mood. The benefits are proven with numerous clinical trials involving healthy as well as individuals diagnosed with cognitive problems.
Oxiracetam is known to possess anti-amnesiac properties, as such, a double cling trial involving 12 health volunteers were done to prove this hypothesis. Researchers used the “scopolamine model of amnesia” to evaluate this purported beneficial effect. The volunteers underwent a series of neuropsychological examinations, after which they received scopolamine. Administration of scopolamine leads to decrease in attention, verbal episodic memory and semantic memory. Nevertheless, the volunteers who were given a dose of oxiracetam showed significant improvement on overall cognitive performance .
In another study, the behavioral and cognitive effects of long term oxiracetam use on demented patients were measured. Elderly individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate multi-infarct dementia and dementia of Alzheimer’s type received 1600 mg of oxiracetam daily for 6 months. After the study period, both the oxiracetam and control groups were evaluated using different neuropsychological tests.
Results revealed that the oxiracetam group had markedly improved scores on most neuropsychological tests as compared to the control group. This study shows that prolonged controlled oxiracetam use can help in treating mild to moderate dementia .
A more recent study further proved the efficacy of oxiracetam in treating dementia. Individuals diagnosed with mixed, multi-infarct and degenerative dementia were given oxiracetam for 12 weeks. Comparison of neurological test results between oxiracetam and control group indicated that quality of life is significantly improved amongst the oxiracetam group . This confirms that oxiracetam is effective not only in treating mild to moderate dementia but also in improving quality of life.
Memory perhaps is perhaps the most celebrated beneficial effect if oxiracetam. This was substantiated by a double blind, controlled trial wherein elderly individuals with organic mental disorders were given oxiracetam and control drug. Results indicated that memory was significantly improved amongst the oxiracetam group . Other studies regarding the therapeutic effects of this nootropic compound on memory indicates that it can help facilitate long term memory formation as well as spontaneous memory.
Other than the above mentioned benefits, an early research revealed that oxiracetam can help in improving logical performance, attention and overall cognitive functions. Additionally, it helps in enhancing functional abilities and behavioral parameters . This novel nootropic compound can positively help individuals with dementia, cognitive problems and memory disorders. Nevertheless, caution is still needed prior to use.
Oxiracetam has similar chemical structure to its parent compound, piracetam. It contains a hydroxyl group located on its 4 carbon as seen on its structural skeleton. It is a known water soluble synthetic racetam primarily used to improve memory and cognitive functioning. Oxiracetam serves as a GABA analogue supporting phospholipid metabolism, AMPA receptor modulator and neurotransmitter release, thus, it is considered to be more potent than piracetam.
Chemical name/IUPAC: 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide
Chemical formula: C6H10N2O3
Chemical property: White crystalline powder
Usage: Nootropic agent
Oxiracetam powder is water soluble. Do not exceed recommended dosage. Do not use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Store in a cool, dry place, away from excess light. Once opened, keep the product in the original packaging and the compounds will stay fresh for many years.
Even with numerous researches regarding the use of oxiracetam, its exact mechanism remains to be unknown. However, many experts suggest that it exerts its functions through interfering with the production if neurotransmitters particularly acetylcholine and glutamate. Glutamate, an amino acid has a major role to play in maintaining neuron transmissions, learning as well as memory formation. On the other hand, acetylcholine helps in sustaining attention on the central nervous system whilst activates peripheral nervous system muscles. It also serves as a neuromodulator which affects short term memory and one’s ability to learn.
Like most of the other racetams, Oxiracetam has been considered fairly safe to use. It is non-toxic and its low potency reduces the risk of overdose. No overdose reports causing death or severe side-effects have been reported. Commonly, overdose symptoms will relate to headaches or fatigue and will often result in opposite nootropic effects. Oxiracetam is well tolerated in most individuals. Some individuals may be sensitive to the substance and it is recommended to use a lower dose for the first time to observe the level of sensitivity.